Diagram of the Vaible System Model used for analysing and designing organization structures



Raul Espejo (Syncho Research, L., UK) (2015). "An Enterprise Complexity Model: Variety Engineering and Dynamic Capabilities." International Journal of Systems and Society (IJSS) 2(1): 22.


Espejo, R. & A. Reyes (2011). Organizational Systems: Managing Complexity with the Viable System Model, Springer.


Alfonso Reyes, (2012) "Organizational learning and the effective management of complexity", Kybernetes, Vol. 41 Iss: 3/4, pp.318 - 326

R. Espejo (2012) "Seeing organisations: epistemological considerations". Kybernetes, Vol. 41 Iss: 3/4, pp.327 – 338.

G. Bula and Espejo, R (2012). "Governance and inclusive democracy". Kybernetes, Vol. 41 Iss: 3/4, pp.339 – 347.

Espejo, R. (2011). "Seeing a case study through a cybernetic epistemological lens." Kybernetes 40(9/10): 1273 - 1296 read more...

Espejo, R. and D. Kuropatwa (2011). "Appreciating the complexity of organizational processes". in Kybernetes 40 Number 3/4, pp 454-476

Espejo, R. and Z. Mendiwelso Bendek (2011). "An argument for active citizenship and organizational transparency" in Kybernetes 40 Number 3/4, pp 477-493

Espejo, R. (2009). “Performance management, the nature of regulation and the CyberSyn Project” in Kybernetes Vol 38, Number 1/2 pp 65-82

(read more...)

Espejo, R. (2008)
Observing organisations: the use of identity and structural archetypes’,
Int. J. Applied Systemic Studies, Vol. 2, Nos. 1/2, pp.6–24.

(read more...)

Reyes, A. (2008)
A practical tool to recognise individual and organisational learning obstacles’,
Int. J. Applied Systemic Studies, Vol. 2, Nos. 1/2, pp.82–94.

(read more...)


Requisite Variety

Information and Communications in society






Latest Raul's Blog

An Agenda for Social Transparency: making sense of big data

September, 2016


Recent publication:

Raul Espejo (Syncho Research, L., UK) (2015). "An Enterprise Complexity Model: Variety Engineering and Dynamic Capabilities." International Journal of Systems and Society (IJSS) 2(1): 22.

Abstract Announcement for International Journal of Systems and Society (IJSS) 2(1)


Professor Raul Espejo was keynote speaker at the Third Symposium of the Business Systems Laboratory held at Perugia from the 21st to the 23rd of January, 2015. The title of his contribution was:

"Towards a more transparent market economy: self-organisation and requisite variety"

November 2013 Prof. Espejo was invited to address an Intenational Congress organised by the State Council of Colombia. The ocassion was:

Cien años de Administración Pública

Retos y  perspectivas  

Congreso Internacional conmemorativo del centenario de la ley 4 de 1913

13-14 -15  de noviembre de 2013

Centro de Convenciones  las Américas  Cartagena de Indias


his talk was "A heuristic for Inclusive Policies"

Earlier in October he delivered a keynote speach to the Brasilian Systems Society about

Learning to act systemically



The Business Systems Laboratory (www.bslaboratory.net)  and SESGE (Sociedad Española de Sistemas Generales) – Universitat de Valencia held  the INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM The Economic Crisis: Time for a Paradigm Shift – Towards a Systems Approach at the University of Valencia  on the 24-25 January, 2013. Keynote speakers were Professor Raul Espejo, Director General of the World Organization for Systems and Cybernetics (UK), MATJAŽ MULEJ Distinguished Professor at Maribor University and Professor Gaetano Golinelli, from the Sapienza University, Roma, Italy 

The 21st European Meeting on         Cybernetics and Systems Research (EMCSR) took place in Vienna from April 10 to April 13, 2012. Raul Espejo was responsible for the Symposium “Design and Self-organization in the Emergence of Effective Organizations”. For details see www.wosc.co

From September 2011 Raul Espejo is the Director-General of the World Organisation of Systems and Cybernetics read more...

WOSC's website is www.wosc.co


The journal Kybernetes has published a special issue about Organizational Cybernetics, edited by Raul Espejo: Vol 40, Number 3/4 (read more)


Reviews of Organizational Systems by Espejo and Reyes:

Dr. Germán Bula's review:

Below you can read the presentation of German Bula, Minister of Education of Colombia between the years 1998 and 2000,  of the book “Organizational Systems: Managing Complexity with the Viable System Model” by Raul Espejo and Alfonso Reyes (Heidelberg, Springer 2011), in the city of Ibague, Colombia, the 5th of July 2011.

(read more...)


Book Review

by Gandolfo Dominici, Univ. of Palermo, Italy & J. Rodolfo Hernández, Univ. Valencia, Spain

read review



Past Events

Raul demonstrating the concept of a pod for use in cyberfilter

CyberSyn in Berlin 2008...





The Cybernetics of Governance Chile 1971-1973

Cybersyn in the First London Design Biennale, Somerset House, September, 2016





Last December Raul Espejo gave a talk about Cybersyn at the University of Westminster, London. Video recording of this event is now uploaded in YouTube:


The talk highlighted Cybersyn’s  governance approach in contrast to current approached as well as its methodological and epistemological strengths and weaknesses. The talk was followed by a lively debate.


WOSC 2014

Information, reports, videos, photos of the World Organisation of Systems and Cybernetics Congress in Ibagué, Colombia last October can be accessed in the Congress website


Viplan Online Learning Centre


Syncho Research offers a free online program to those who wish to learn more about the Viable System Model (VSM), the Viplan Method and the Viplan Methodology. This programme increases users' abilities to deal with unstructured problems and diagnose and design organisations. WWW.SYNCHO.ORG is in a separate website developed only for this purpose. Read more...


Viable System Model

was developed by Stafford Beer as a way to understand how complexity is managed in viable organizations. (read more on relevance and use of the VSM...)

Since its inception, Syncho has had a strong focus on research. At the heart of much of this research lies the Viable System Mode (VSM)l. Raul Espejo started his collaboration with Stafford Beer in the Project Cybersyn for the Chilean Government in the early 1970's. Since then Raul has publish many books and papers influenced by the VSM.

ViPlan Method

...is a method developed by Raul to use the Viable System Model in organizational diagnosis and design. It helps structuring the strategies used by organisations to manage their complexity in challenging environments. Its emphasis is in exploring and organisation's identity and structure ... read more...

Viplan Toolbox (read more...)

ViPlan Methodology

developed by Raul to facilitate applying systemic thinking to organisational problem situations using the VSM and soft systems thinking. (read more ...)


Books and Papers by Raul Espejo


Download pdfs on the VSM, Management Cybernetics


Accessing the ViPlan Learning System.